I understand you're looking for a programmatic way to share content via email linking directly to Jive content. Unfortunately, this is currently not available out of the box and without some customization. However, please also be aware that Jive has a share functionality built in. You should be able to share content directly in Jive by using the "Share" button. If the recipient is an unregistered email address (e.g. you input "email@example.com" and this isn't already registered to a user in your Jive community), then an email will be sent to that user with a PDF version of the content you're sharing.
For example, I will share this very post:
And in my email, I get:
Not visible in the screenshot above is the PDF attachment towards the bottom:
So this should fulfill your requirements, for the most part. Let me know if you had any other questions on this.