Thanks for raising this inquiry into how to search for Jive documents using the numeric document ID. Presuming you're using the built in Jive full or spotlight search, the search functionality will look at the actual content and will search based on the combination of key words and relevancy, not the document ID. Using the normal search fields will limit your ability to search by document ID. You may wish to look into potential customizations through Jive Professional Services. Let me know if you'd like to be placed in touch.
If you're developing your own application, you may want to look at potentially using REST API. However, this will require development and testing, which is outside the normal scope of Jive Customer Support. I would encourage collaborating with other developers in the Jive Developers space to gain insight into ways to meet this requirement.
Let me know if you had any other questions otherwise.